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Sikhism - " Political Attitude Of Guru Nanak "...5(end)
Posted by Preet Mohan S Ahluwalia Send Email to Author on Monday, 3/01/1999 5:23 PM MST
Journal Of Sikh Studies
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At the time of the publication of this article the author was a Research Assistant at Guru Nanak Dev University preparing his Ph.D thesis: "Sikh Gurus and the Mughal State: A Study In Political Attitude".

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POLITICAL ATTITUDE OF GURU NANAK
Balwant Singh Dhillon


The history of Sikh Gurus begins with the birth of Guru Nanak in 1469 AD and continues through a line of nine successors upto 1708 AD. To deliver his message of Unity of God and Brotherhood of Man, Guru Nanak travelled far and wide, and at last settled at Kartarpur, where the first Sikh centre came into existence. During Guru Nanak's lifetime Bahlol Lodi (1451 - 1489 AD), Sikandar Lodi (1489 - 1517 AD) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 - 1526 AD) ruled over the Sultanate of Delhi. It is said that upto 1519, the internal peace of Punjab did not appear to have been seriously disturbed.[1] But after that Punjab experienced certain dramatic changes. Ever since the occupation of Kabul, Babur was thinking to move to Hindustan.[2] Writing about his military expeditions, Babur states:

"We laboriously held tight to Hindustan, five times leading an army into it. The fifth time, God the most High, by His own Mercy and Favour, made such a foe as Sultan Ibrahim, the vanquished and loser, such a realm as Hindustan our conquest and possession."[3]

Thus during Guru Nanak's lifetime at first the Afghan empire came to an end and then Mughal rule was established. Guru Nanak in his compositions has made certain observations about the contemporary politics. Scholars of Sikh history hold divergent views regarding Guru Nanak's attitude towards politics. In this connection some scholars hold that Guru Nanak's reforms were purely religious and moral. But on the other hand some scholars have credited Guru Nanak with direct political concerns. Another school of scholars have discerned a close connection between the reforms of Guru Nanak and politics.[4]

The cause of diversity in views seems to be that, most of the scholars have not thoroughly probed the events and have shown a casual attitude while writing Sikh history. Secondly, while forming an idea about Guru Nanak's political concern, they have studied only some popular verses and those which have a bearing on the issue have been left aside. For the purpose of our study we have classified Guru Nanak's verses as under:

(i) The verses in which Guru Nanak's idea of political power, sovereignity, kingship and succession is enshrined.

(ii) The verses in which Guru Nanak's observations and criticism of rulers and his expectations from them are found.

(iii) Verses which refer to Muslim rule

(iv) The verses relating to Babur's invasion.


I

At the onset, it should be borne in mind that Guru Nanak considers temporal power and riches insignificant and transitory. He remarks; many have departed after having proclaimed sovereignity over earth.[5] The "Patshahs", "Sultans", "Khans", "Siqandars", "Chaudhries" and "Mukddams" are mortal and none is permanent in this world.[6] The Sultans, Amirs and Maliks have perished away in succession from this earth.[7] Not only the people in authority, the acquisition of elephants, horses, armies, spears, trumpets and the possession of throne are also, false ostentations.[8] You may expand your dominions, recruit lacs of soldiers and receive homage from lacs of men - all this is fruitless if your honour is of no account to your Lord.[9]

The solidly built mansions, the treasures filled with wealth, the stallions of elephants and camels, the gardens and pleasure pavillions all are short lived and thus shall disintegrate.[10] Guru Nanak expresses about himself, "were I to become an emperor, to raise a huge army, to set my foot on the throne, were I to possess regal command and collect revenue - all this is liable to pass away like a puff of wind and for me to forget His Name will be worse."[11] The verses quoted above show Guru Nanak's disregard for temporal power and estabish priority of religion over politics.

In medieval India power and riches were considered a status symbol, so there was a mad pursuit to attain them. From the reflection of Guru Nanak's compositions it becomes clear that he was not for worldly power. But his idea of transitoriness of worldly things was a lesson for the rulers, and was to serve the purpose to make them religious and moral.

Guru Nanak believes that God is the ultimate sovereign, and he addresses Him as Sultan, Shah-Alam, Patsha, Sacha-Patsha and Patshah-i-Patshah.[12] He is the King of kings and Himself adminsters true justice.[13] Creator, the Sacha-Patshah has yoked the world to His task.[14] The Shah-Alam has bound the world in His bounds.[15] The sovereignity of the True Lord is known throughout all ages.[16] His rule goes forever and his sovereignity is never liquidated.[17] He issues true orders and warrants, because His court is true.[18] He alone listens to sincere supplication.[19] His subjects are in peace.[20] I have no other door than His to salute.[21] Commenting on Guru Nanak's idea of worldly power Grewal has aptly remarked that if "Guru Nanak were to choose between the service of the True King and the possession of earthly kingship he would choose the former."[22] In the verses quoted above Guru Nanak's idea of sovereignity is implied.

Guru Nanak believes that sovereignity belongs to God, and no mortal being can be an ultimate sovereign. That is why he does not consider kingship as eternal. In his view, rulers are as much a creation of God as everything else in the universe. He states that at the begining of the universe there was no subjects and no kings.[23] The rulership and riches can not be acquired by might.[24] These things come to man by God's Grace. Some he has raised to kingship and others wander about begging.[25] God is capable of reducing an army to ashes, and appointing someone insignificant to kingship.[26] If His grace is not favourable, Sultans fall to ground.[27] By His Will one becomes king and enjoys pleasurs and luxuries.[28] In this way Guru Nanak feels that kings derive their authority from God, because He is the sole source and distributor of temporal power.

From the above injunctions, it may seem kings being appointed by God may not be accountable for their misdeeds. However, this is not true because Guru Nanak feels that foolish and ignorant issue orders not knowing that they will be accountable for their actions.[29] The fate of all kingdoms will be decided as per their deeds.[30] At the time of judgement the possession of gold, silver, armies, horses, spears and trumpets, will be of no account because so many kings of kings are standing to receive the judgement.[31] Although Guru Nanak believes that kingship is a gift of God, he does not ascribe divinity to the kings. He feels that a king is not free to do whatever he likes. He holds him responsible and punishable for his ommissions and commissions. To expound the idea of righteousness, Guru Nanak makes reference to Raja Bal, Hari Chand, Harnaksha, Ravana, Jarasandh, etc.[32] Here Guru Nanak suggests that should not consider themselves as divine. Secondly the political authority can be maintained only if the


person in authority performs his duties justly and for the good of the people. If he indulges in worldly pleasures, he forfeits his claim to be the ruler and God may even send an outside authority to deprive the ruler of his office.[33] Guru Nanak affirms that in the long run righteousness will prevail. In his views kings are accountable for their misdeeds and are not immune to punishment.

In India the belief in karma and incarnation theories had made people to think that the king had a divine right to rule over them and to disobey him will be to transgress the divine order. They considered their position and suffering due to their past karma. To hold power or to serve their interests, the people in power often exploited the general masses. After the establishment of the Muslim power in India it was promulgated that the Sultan is a "shadow of God on earth." However Guru Nanak confronted this idea.

Guru Nanak's idea of succession is very interesting and noteworthy. In the Hindu society the succession to the throne was hereditary, and normally elder son succeeded the father. This system had the potential to deprive able and efficient people to get a chance to succeed which could lead to the poor performance of the administration. Islamic Law does not prescribe any norms for succession, so after the death of an emperor, muslim claimants fought battles to decide the succession.

Guru Nanak refers to the wars of succession and subsequent bloodshed, in his compositions.[34] Both these systems gave way to indiscipline and anarchy. Guru Nanak does not ascribe to religion, caste and tribe, while decidieg the succession. He himself appointed his successor on the basis of ability and overruled the hereditory considerations. Similarly, Guru Nanak states that only ability of a person should be the yardstick to decide succession. He says:

"He alone who is worthy of the throne should sit on it."[35]

Furthermore, he should be the embodiment of the Divine Wisdom, having in him the fear of God. Only that ruler who is imbibed with the fear of God and has the five virtues can stay on the throne.[36] Hence, Guru Nanak's theory of succession transcends the religious, tribal and hereditory norms, and expounds that only able and God fearing people should succeed to the throne. In this way the traditional and the prevalent ideas of kingship, sovereignity and succession found a new direction and shape in the hands of Guru Nanak.

II

In some verses Guru Nanak has levelled certain allegations against the rulers. Guru Nanak points to the falling standards of moral life and observes, "In this age men have faces like dogs and their food is carrion. They utter falsehood and eat forbidden food. The virtues like righteousness, humility, self-control, piety, modesty and honour have vanished,"[37] In fact these evils were the cause of the degeneration of political life. Guru Nanak states:

"The Rajas, Raos, Chaudhris and Maliks are burning with egotism, and they are like a reed burnt with wild fire."[38]

He further states:

"both greed and sin are the Raja and Mehta; falsehood is Shiqdar; lust is the Naibs; they all sit together to conspire."[39]

Furthermore, Guru Nanak associates his age with the Kaliyug, and comments:

"Kings are like butchers and righteousness has vanished away. In this dark night of falsehood, the moon of truth is not seen to rise anywhere."[40]

Guru Nanak feels that the rulers are busy in amassing wealth.[41] He condems those rulers who give to charity by commiting sin.[42] Even their charity is not for the welfare of the people since they give charity hoping for something in return.[43] In fact, the evils and ills, pointed out by Guru Nanak had plagued the life of men in authority.

Guru Nanak often makes reference to the tyrannical and atrocious rulers in his compositions. He observes: "the Rajas are lions and the Mukaddams are dogs. They fall upon the subjects at odd hours and harass them. Their agents inflict wounds, and the dogs lick blood and relish the liver of the poor subjects."[44] Guru Nanak mentions about the blood sucking Rajas also.[45] In Guru Nanak's view corruption is so high in the administration that there is no one who doesn't receive or give bribe. Even the king administers justice only when his palm is greased and none is moved in the name of God.[46]

Although, at that time Muslims ruled India but Hindus continued to hold offices of Chaudris, Rais, Muqaddams, Shiqdar etc. So, it is logically difficult for us to conclude that only the muslim rulers have been criticized. Guru Nanak's criticism has not been directed against any particular community, but to every corrupt person in a position of authority.

Guru Nanak has expounded a theory of succession in which religion, tribe, caste etc. had no consideration but ability and efficiency, good virtues and fear of God were the chief qualities for a person to descend the throne. In addition to that, Guru Nanak considers an essential trait of the ruler, is to receive homage and reverence from his subjects.[47] This is possible if he is owned by the subjects and does not hold to the throne by might. Refering to the initiation or the oath taking ceremony, Guru Nanak asks the ruler,

"If he wants to take the oath it should be of justice."[48]

In the words of Dr. J.S. Bains;

" like Plato's philosopher kings Guru Nanak wanted the rulers to be above the temptations of the world.....only if the ruler is guided by the Divine Light, can he be of any service to the people. Such an authority sshould not be swayed by material pleasures but should create conditions in which love for God and spiritual values may flourish."[49]

Exploitation of the poor, has been an evil for all times. Guru Nanak strongly criticizes those who grab others share. He considers,

"to snatch one's right is like to eat swine and cow for Muslims and Hindus alike."[50]

He, himself declined to take malik Bhago's food because it was the result of extrotion and oppression.

Guru Nanak laments about the ignorance and unresponsive attitude of the subjects. He wants to enlighten the subjects of their rights and obligations. In his view, the natural relationship between the ruler and the subjects is established only if the latter meets the demands of the former.[51] He states:

"If a farmer does not pay revenue to the ruler, then he would have to suffer the punishment,"[52]

But at the same time he reprimands the subjects for their ignorance, because they satisfy the official's fire for greed with giving bribes.[53] In his earnest to educate subjects for their behaviour, he instructs:

"If a man lives a dishonoured life, then all that he eats is 'haram'."[54]

Guru Nanak wants fearless people and asks them to utter truth at the right time.[55] Furthermore, in his opinion, to die for the right cause is praiseworthy.[56] Through these injunctions Guru Nanak wanted to enlighten the people of their rights and responsibilities. Secondly, he wants people to be fearless and shun cowardice, so that to take initiative and bold measures to ameliorate their sufferings is possible. In these teachings the germs of resistance to unruly and corrupt administrations and the right to defend and revolt are enshrined.

Apart from this Guru Nanak has stressed the need of loyal and honest officials. he remarks:

"If a servant, engaged in service, works according to his master's will, his honour is magnified and he receives double the wages. If a servant claims equality with the master then he incurs his displeasure."[57] "Who's gifts we eat let us hail him?"[58]

Uptill now we have discussed the verses which are of universal character. Although these verses apply to all rulers of all the times there is no direct reference to the Muslim rulers of his times. This reference is found in another category that we shall take up next.

III

Guru Nanak has made an explicit reference to contemporary muslim rule in his compositions. Referring to the muslim rule he comments, "in the kaliyug the name of God has become Allah. The respectable dress is of blue colour and the rule is of the Turks and Pathans."[59]

Here the contemporary muslim rule has been associated with kaliyug but the direct denunciation is missing. This is found in another verse, where Guru Nanak states:

"Now the Primal Lord is called Allah and the turn of shaikhs has come. The practice to tax the gods and their temples has come into vogue. The ablution-pots, call to prayer and prayer carpets are seen everywhere, and the lord appears in blue form. The language has become different, because in every house people are called 'Mian'."[60]

Here Guru Nanak takes notice of the establishment of the muslim rule and imposition of discriminatory tax called "Jizya", on those who do not profess to the religion of the ruling class. Guru Nanak affirms, "now only the reading of Quran is acceptable."[61] For the muslim rulers all human beings other than muslims are of one caste, that is "Kafir"[62]. These verses state the muslim's state's discriminatory attitude towards non-muslims. But discrimination on the grounds of religion was against the tenets of Guru Nanak. So his protest was but natural. Not only this, Guru Nanak condemns the corrupt and atrocious muslim rulers describing them as maneaters.[63]

With the establishment of the muslim rule in India, the institution of Qazi was entrusted to dispense justice according to 'Shariat'. The muslim subjects held the Qazi in high esteem and he was considered pious and a man of integrity. However, Guru Nanak felt that the moral standards of the Qazi's life had degenerated. Guru Nanak mentions:

"becoming Qazi, he sits to administer justice, but by taking bribe he does injustice, and if someone challenges his judgement then he quotes from the religious book to justify himself."[64] He further states, "Qazi tells lie and eats filth by corruption."[65] He feels, "Qazi's personality is not without a blemish. The shariat instead of dispensing justice has increased the disputes."[66]

In the above verses, the institution of Qazi, which was responsible for dispensing justice has been specifically condemned for its malfunctioning. A Qazi was considered to be the custodian of shariat and in medieval India the muslim rulers used to get their un-Islamic acts legitimized with the help of corrupt Qazis. But in Guru Nanak's view, the Qazi is not fit to be a judge because he has lost all the virtues of life. No doubt by criticizing the Qazi, Guru Nanak exposes the injustice prevailing in administration and holds Qazis responsible for it. But his condemnation of the Qazis has a deeper implication also. By denouncing the Qazi Guru Nanak indirectly disaproves the legitimacy given by the Qazi to the rulers.

With the establishment of the muslim rule, the hindu ruling class began to adopt the muslim way of life. Guru Nanak severely criticized those hindus who had fallen in line with the muslim rulers. He says, "The khatris have abjured their dharma and have taken the language of muslims."[67] Hindu ruling class's adoptation of the muslim culture, has been vividly depicted by Guru Nanak in Asa-di-Var. Here Guru Nanak exposes the dual character of hindu officials and asks:

"You charge taxes from the cow and Brahmins, but cow-dung which you use for your puja will not save you. You wear dhoti, put tilak and carry rosary, but your provisions come from muslim money. In house you perform puja, but in public you adopt muslim way of life and read muslim books. By wearing blue clothes you want to become acceptable in the eyes of the muslim rulers, and by taking salary from them you worship the Puranas."[68]

In medieval India a cow and a brahmin were considered to be sacred by the Hindus. During Guru Nanak's times Pilgrimage tax and Jaziya were being levied on the Hindus by the state. And apart from land revenue people had to pay 'Gau-Shumari' a tax on the cows. Later on Akbar abolished these taxes. Although the cow and a brahmin were sacred for Hindu officials working under the muslim rule, but at the same time they had to collect these taxes.

Taking into account the verdict of Guru Nanak, it becomes clear that the Hindu ruling class had yielded before the Muslim rulers. It reflects their submissive attitude to the rulers. Guru Nanak felt that these people had alienated themselves from their heritage and they are spiritually devoid.[69] It clearly shows Guru Nanak's grievance.

Guru Nanak feels that with the establishment of the Muslim rule, rulers had started patronizing Islam. In the society Muslim religious people had come to the forefront and their views mattered the most. People incharge of justice indulged in malpractices and their character was not praiseworthy. The Muslim state discriminated against the Hindus who had to pay the Jaziya. To please the rulers the Hindu ruling class had started to adopt the way of life that pleased the rulers. Guru Nanak did not consider this to be a healthy development.

IV

The verses relating to Babur's invasions and his subsequent battles with the Lodi empire, are collectively known as "Babur-vani". The analysis of Babur-vani is of great help to decipher Guru nanak's attitude towards the Mughal and the Lodi rulers.

In Babur-vani attrocities and devastation caused by the invasion of Babur and inefficiencies of the Lodi administration, have been highlighted. First we take up Guru Nanak's reactions to Babur's invasion.

Commenting on Babur's invasion, Guru Nanak says, "with the marriage party of sin, Babur has come from Kabul and demands charity by force."[70] Guru Nanak testifies that the "invading mughal army has laid waste the priceless country and no one pays heed to the dead."[71] Many strong mansions and ordinary buildings were burnt and destroyed.[72] The mughal army "inflicted so much beating that people shrieked."[73] Pointing to the death and murder, Guru Nanak remarks:
"Princes were cut to pieces and rolled in the dust." Guru Nanak was deeply pained to see the suffering of the ordinary people at the hands of the army, and wrote,

"If the mighty destroy only one another, one is not grieved. But if a mighty lion falls upon a herd of cattle, the Master is answerable."[74]

Moved by the suffering of the people, Guru Nanak invoked God and asked,

"did not You feel compassion at this suffering and lamentation."[75]

Protesting against the death and devastation caused by babur, Guru Nanak sang paeans of murder[76] and described Babur as "angel of death."[77]

Another unfortunate aspect of Babur's invasions was the fate of women at the hands of the invading army. Guru Nanak remarks:

"the function of Qazis and Brahmins is over, now the marriage rites are performed by Satan."[78]

Referring to the pitiable plight of women, he states;

"the robes of some women are torn from head to foot."[79] "The heads which were adorned with tresses and filled with varmillion, are shaven and throats are chocked with dust....The ropes are put around their necks and their strings of pearls are broken. The order was given to the soldiers, who having dishonoured them, took them away."[80] "In helpless and despair muslim women invoke God and similar is the case with hindu women."[81]

Guru Nanak mentions that rape and suffering was not confined to any particular community of women. Women of all castes viz. Hinduani, Turkani, Bhattiani and Thakurani, they were all dishonoured and suffered at the hands of the mughal army.[82]

Babur-vani also provides some glimpses of the battle fought between the Mughals and the Lodis. Guru Nanak mentions,

"the mughals and pathans fought each other wielding swords in the battlefield. The mughals aimed and fired their guns, and the pathans attacked with their elephants."[83] "The rule of Babur has been established and no Pathan prince ate his food."[84]

Coming to the cause by which Lodis were defeated, Guru Nanak states:

"the wealth and sensual beauty had intoxicated them, and they have lost their sense in merry-making."[85]

It is a fact of history that during Babur's invasions, Lodis were a divided house, and due to this they could not offer a stiff resistance to the mughals. Guru Nanak implicitely remarks that pursuit of power and riches had divided the Lodi brothers.[86] Because the pursuit of temporal power and riches has become the sole concern of the rulers, they were bound to be defeated. Here again Guru Nanak affirms his faith that unrighteousness cannot last long.

Guru Nanak points out the inadequate arrangements made by the Lodi empire to defend the country. In India rulers used to employ magicians, because it was considered that their spells and charms could defeat the army. Referring to their worthlessness Guru Nanak states:

"Thousands of Pirs tried to stop Mir Babur (by means of magic) when they heard of his invasion. But no mughal was blinded and none of the spells had any effect."[87]

Guru Nanak criticizes Lodis for not making sufficient arrangements for protecting their subjects. He holds them responsible for the suffering of the people at the hands of the mughals.[[88]

Guru Nanak's criticism of babur refers to him when he was an invader and not the ruler of land. Guru Nanak upbraided Babur and his troops for tyranny and atrocities by which people had to suffer a lot. Guru Nanak did not condem Babur because he was a Muslim, but because he had caused rape, death and devastation. Guru nanak's denunciation of Babur is unique because no Muslim Sufi and Hindu saint dared to reprimand Babur for his oppression. It is said that the Sufis blessed Babur and hailed his victory. It was only Guru Nanak who aligned himself with the oppressed and felt the sufferings of the people.

Now the question arises, what was the attitude of Guru Nanak towards Babur, after the establishment of the Mughal rule. After the establishment of the rule no reference is found of a contact between the two. As pointed out earlier Guru Nanak has laid down certain norms that the rulers should follow. It could not have been different for Babur. We can safely conclude that Guru Nanak does not condone Babur for his lapses in providing a just administration.

From the above discussion it becomes clear that Guru Nanak did not show any regard for political power yet he was a keen observer and had a political vision. He took pains to point out the evils and ills of contemporary politics and set certain norms of behaviour to be followed by the rulers. To sim up his views we may say that he did not ascribe divinity to a king and held him accountable and punishable for his misdeeds. In his opinion a ruler derives his authority from God, so the sovereignity does not belong to the ruler but to God. Expressing his views on succession, Guru Nanak set aside the norms of hereditary, caste, religion and tribe. According to him only able and efficient people have the right to ascend the throne.

He desires a God-fearing ruler and asks him to imbibe virtues, and refrain from revelments and sensual pleasures. Guru Nanak instructs a ruler to work for the welfare of his subjects and abstain from self-motivation. He wishes harmony and peace in a kingdom, and craves to eradicate discrimination and exploitation at all levels. He enjoins upon the ruler to defend the country and the people from foreign aggression. He directs the ruler and the men of authority to be just and considerate while performing their duties. He demands honesty and integrity and asks them not to indulge in conspiracies and intrigues and that they should not be atrocious and tyrannical towards the subjects. Summing up Guru Nanak's political ideas, Dr. J.S. Bains concludes:

"the state should create conditions which may help the individual to further in personality. The good of the human being is the first duty of any constituted authority. The state is there for the individual and not vice versa. An ideal ruler must, therefore, be an embodiment of Divine Wisdom and he should always cater to the needs of the people. If he fails to fulfil his duties, he loses the mandate of God and his removal from power may be considered as a religious and moral duty."[89]

On the other hand Guru Nanak requires people to be wise and responsible in their conduct and behaviour towards the rulers and other officials. He teaches them to shun a dishonoured life and to be fearless to state the truth. Moreover they should not be afraid of dying for a right cause. The injunctions of Guru Nanak, have the germs of defiance and resistance to an oppressive and tyrannical rule. But such situation will not arise unless and untill the people in authority failed to behave according to the nnorms set by Guru Nanak.

Before concluding we may safely remark that the basis of Guru Nanak's attitude, viz. faith in God's sovereignity, justice, virtues, righteousness, equality, fearlessness, liberty, honesty, sense of responsibility and freedom from oppression and discrimination, form the core of his religion. So we cannot isolate his political attitude from his religion.

The uniqueness of Guru Nanak's views is that he has linked morality and religion with politics and by this security of human rights becomes more possible. No doubt, the views expressed by Guru Nanak are not sufficient to form a political system, but they are so vital and important that without them we cannot imagine a welfare state. In fact, Guru Nanak's attitude towards politics is very much related with the welfare of man and society.





REFERENCE & NOTES
[1] J.S. Grewal, "Guru Nanak in History", Punjab University.
[2] "The Babur Nama", (ed. Beveridge), Orient Books, New Delhi
[3] Ibid., p.479
[4] J.S. Grewal, op-cit, pp.143-45
[5] SGGS p.595
[6] Ibid., p.227
[7] Ibid., p.64
[8] Ibid., p.225
[9] Ibid., p.358
[10] Ibid., p.141
[11] Ibid., p.14
[12] Ibid., p.1188
[13] Ibid., p.1170
[14] Ibid., p.578
[15] Ibid., p.432
[16] Ibid., p.142
[17] Ibid., p.567
[18] Ibid., p.141
[19] Ibid., p.355
[20] Ibid., p.1190
[21] Ibid., p.418
[22] Grewal, op cit, p.149-50
[23] Ibid., p.1036
[24] Ibid., p.7
[25] Ibid., p.354
[26] Ibid., p.144
[27] Ibid., p.472
[28] Ibid., p.145
[29] Ibid., p.1169
[30] Ibid., p.1241
[31] Ibid., p.1287
[32] SGGS p.224
[33] J.S. Bains, "Political Ideas of Guru Nanak", Indian Journal of Political Science
[34] Ibid., p.903, 145
[35] Ibid., p.1039
[36] Ibid., p.122
[37] Ibid., p.1242-43
[38] Ibid., p.63
[39] Ibid., p.468-69
[40] Ibid., p.145
[41] Ibid., p.1342
[42] Ibid., p.951
[43] Ibid., 1024
[44] Ibid., p.1288
[45] Ibid., p.142
[46] Ibid., p.350
[47] Ibid., p.354
[48] J.S. Bains, op.cit. p.314-15
[50] Ibid., p.141
[51] Ibid., p.143
[52] Ibid., p.416
[53] Ibid., p.469
[54] Ibid., p.142
[55] Ibid., p.723
[56] Ibid., p.579
[57] Ibid., p.474
[58] Ibid.,
[59] Ibid., p.470
[60] Ibid., p.1191
[61] Ibid., p.902
[62] Ibid., p.663
[63] Ibid., p.471
[64] Ibid., p.951
[65] Ibid., p.662
[66] Ibid., p.902
[67] Ibid., p.663
[68] SGGS, p.471-72
[69] Surjit hans, "Parampara ate Pragatiwad", 1981
[70] Ibid., p.722
[71] Ibid., p.360
[72] Ibid., p.417
[73] Ibid., p.360
[74] Ibid., p.360
[75] Ibid., p.360
[76] Ibid., p.722
[77] Ibid., p.360
[78] Ibid., p.722
[79] Ibid., p.418
[80] Ibid., p.417
[81] Ibid., p.722
[82] Ibid., p.418
[83] Ibid.,
[84] Ibid., p.417
[85] Ibid., p.417
[86] Ibid., p.417
[87] Ibid., p.418
[88] Ibid., p.360
[89] J.S. Bains, op.cit. p.318


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